Brewing Coffee – Basic Framework and Coffee Ratios of Coffee: Water

What Happens When You Brew Coffee…

When you are brewing coffee, hot water acts as a solvent, washing the soluble solids out of the coffee grinds and into the brew. If you dissolve table salt in water, you have a soluble solid. Soluble solids are bonded with the water molecules, and will not separate over time. Brew methods that use paper filters have only the soluble solids in the cup. Some brew methods allow insoluble solids to enter the brew, like French Press, espresso or Turkish coffee. Insoluble solids will settle out of the brew over time if you don’t disturb the liquid. Hence your mug of French Press coffee might taste gritty nearing the end, and there will be muddy residue in the bottom of the cup. Suspended solids add a sense of body to the cup, but can also add bitter tastes..

Heavy-dosed Aeropress brew (stir, stir, stir!) on the road in Ethiopia.

The 5 main factors that affect your brew:

  1. Coffee-to-water ratio. Most people find that when 20% of soluble solids are extracted from the coffee grounds, the brew has the best flavors. Too much extraction (too fine grind, too long brew time, too hot water, too much ground coffee) and the brew tastes bitter. On the other hand, under-extraction results in a thin, weak, sour cup. Simply using more coffee grounds doesn’t correct under-extraction. It is a good idea to weigh your coffee or use an SCAA coffee scoop or a measuring device that you know will hold 10 grams of coffee. It is also a good idea, at least initially, to weigh or measure your water as well.
  2. Coffee particle size. A finer grind means more surface area of the bean is exposed to the water. For a brew method that uses a longer dwell time such as French Press, a coarser grind is necessary. An even grind of any size is ideal, follow the directions on your grinder, it may take some experimentation to find the best grind for your brew method here is an illustration (photo of different grinds)
  3. The Water Temperature. The ideal water temperature is 195-205 f, since water is a better solvent at near-boiling temperature. This is why it is always better to brew a full batch on an auto-drip machine, since they are built to get a full batch of water up to the proper temperature.
  4. Contact time. How long the water and coffee are in contact with each other. See our brewing instructions below.
  5. Agitation. Stirring the coffee-water infusion increases the extraction rate of soluble solids. Keep in mind that pouring water over the grounds causes agitation. In immersion brew methods it is important to agitate (stir) the brew again during the dwell time.
  6. Heat Retention. Don’t let coffee sit on a hot plate or in a French Press transfer to a thermal carafe to avoid overcooking and over-extraction.

Other factors that have a major impact are:

– The quality of the water. Bad tasting water makes for bad tasting coffee. Also, do not use distilled water. You need some mineral content to properly extract the good stuff from your coffee. The absence of some minerals can lead to very sharp and bitter tastes.

– The quality of the coffee you are using, obviously, and also the roast level. Speaking in broad terms, some roast levels perform better in different brew methods. Lighter roasts can taste aggressively bright in immersion brewers and some pour over methods don’t really showcase the caramelized sweetness in darker roasts. Of course, brew ratios can address some of these issues.

The cleanliness of the brewing equipment. Old sediments easily make for rancid flavors in the cup. A good rule of thumb is: if you smell an odor from your equipment, clean it. If you can’t remember the last time you cleaned your brewer, clean it.

The ideal brewing practice is:

  • Grind immediately before you brew.
  • Adjust grind to brewing method and use a grinder that produces a consistent grind.
  • Use fresh, clean water. If your water does not taste good, your coffee won’t either.
  • Pre-rinse your paper filter to remove any loose paper fibers that can end up in your brew and make your coffee taste papery.
  • Heat retention is also an issue in many manual-brewing devices, Pre-heat your filter-cones and presses.
  • Don’t let it sit. Coffee is only fresh for about 10 minutes. Try to make the right amount of coffee so you are drinking fresh brewed coffee more often.

Here are some ideal coffee/water/time ratios for different brewing methods:

Coffee Brewing Ratios Amount of water by weight Amount of Coffee Infusion Time
 Drip Brewing      
#1 drip filtercone 5 oz (150ml) 8 grams 2:30
#2 drip filtercone 10 oz (300ml) 16 gr 2:30
Clever Coffee Dripper 12 oz (360mL) 22 gr 4:00
#4 filter 20 oz (590 ml) 32 gr 2:30
Chemex 6 cup 30 oz (890 ml) 50 gr 2:30
Chemex 8 cup 40 oz (1180 ml) 65 gr 2:30
Chemex 13 cup 50 oz (1480 ml) 81 gr 2:30
French Press :      
 4T 16 oz (470 ml) 28 gr 4 to 6  min
8T 32 oz (950 ml) 56 gr 4 to 6  min
12T 48 oz (1420 ml) 84 gr 4 to 6  min
 Vacuum pot:      
5 c Yama 20 oz (590 ml) 32 gr 45 seconds
Cona C 25 oz (740 ml) 40.3 gr 45 seconds
8c Yama/Cona D 32 oz (950 ml) 51.7 gr 45 seconds
8 cup 34 oz (1000 mL) 57 gr 6 min
10 cup 42 oz (1240 mL) 68 gr 6 min
1 cup 10 oz 18 gr 1 min
2 cup 18 oz 30 gr 1 min

*Tip for Vacuum Brew: Infusion time measured once water is up in the coffee. There is a range of techniques – from adding hot water to the bottom bowl to letting the water rise to the top and then adding the coffee.  So you may want to check out a variety of techniques and find the one that works for you.

*Tip for Technivorm: We close the drip stop switch on the brew basket (KBT-741 & KBTS models), wait for the brew basket to fill, stir and then let it flow.

*Tip for Frenh Press: Plunge after infusion time, then pour slowly. After plunging I actually like to wait 2-4 minutes more, for fines to further settle. Try it!

Water temperature for all brewing is 195 to 205 degrees. Typically this means water just off the boil. We greatly prefer 205, since the brew device itself usually becomes a heat sink.

On weighing ground coffee: It is much more accurate to measure roasted coffee by weight, since dark roasted coffee takes up more room than light roast. A “standard coffee scoop” (which in reality can vary widely) ought to be equal to two level Tbsps, which is be 8 to 9 grams of dark roast, or 10 to 11 grams of light roast coffee.


Here’s a few fun links from

Creating your own coffee and tea station

Coffee and Tea Brewing Methods

4 Responses

  1. I find that on a Yama 8cup, 950 g water, 59g coffee med roast, lower side of drip grind, 203 degrees for 90 seconds produced really good cup

  2. One other factor not mentioned is the age of the beans post-roasting. I used to think that 3-4 days was optimum but have found that some are really hitting their peak at 6-8 days.

    1. Hi Ken – definitely a good point. Especially for espresso I find … you can’t pull a good shot with coffee roasted the day before. It needs to de-gas after roasting and stabilize. I use some tricks for other types of brewing with super fresh coffee, like long pre-soaking times and stirring the grinds more as I brew (like with pour over). But there are other coffees that you just can’t rush. Some naturals, especially Yemeni coffee, really needs that extra time to rest after roasting…

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